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A method to significantly shorten acquisition times of high-quality MRI images. Multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used nowadays in many applications (e.g., discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs, characterization of new catalysts, and investigation of the structure and dynamics of...

A method to significantly shorten acquisition times of high-quality MRI images.

Multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used nowadays in many applications (e.g., discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs, characterization of new catalysts, and investigation of the structure and dynamics of proteins). One drawback of this technique is that, by contrast to one-dimensional spectroscpic methods, multidimensional NMR requires relatively long measurement times associated with hundreds or thousands of scans. This places certain kinds of rapidly-changing systems in Chemistry outside the scope of the technique. Long acquisition times also make this technique ill-suited for in vivo analyses and for clinical measurements in combination with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The current technology allows for the acquisition of multidimentional NMR scans using a single continuous scan, thereby shortening the time needed to acquire high-quality MRI images.

Applications


  • In vivo diagnostics

  • High-throughput proteomics/metabonomics

  • NMR of unstable chemical systems

  • Metabolic dynamics

  • High-resolution NMR in tabletop systems

  • Extensions to non-MR spectroscopies


Advantages


  • Can shorten the acquisition time of any multidimensional spectroscopy experiment by orders of magnitude
  • Compatible with the majority of multidimensional pulse sequences
  • Can be implemented using conventional NMR and MRI hardware

Technology's Essence


The outlined approach, called ultrafast multidimensional NMR, significantly expedites the analysis of the electromagnetic sounds produced, making it possible to acquire complete multidimensional NMR spectra within a fraction of a second. This technology “slices up” the molecular sample into numerous thin layers and then simultaneously performs all the measurements required on every one of these slices. The protocol then integrates these measurements according to their precise location, generating an image that amounts to a full multidimensional spectrum from the entire sample.

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  • Prof. Lucio Frydman
1431
A method to monitor the amount of milk consumed by the baby during breastfeeding.Breastfeeding has been shown to have important health advantages for both baby and mother. A few months of exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of infant gastro-intestinal problems, respiratory,...

A method to monitor the amount of milk consumed by the baby during breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding has been shown to have important health advantages for both baby and mother. A few months of exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of infant gastro-intestinal problems, respiratory, urinary tract and ear infections. Furthermore, adults who were breastfed at infancy have a lower propensity for obesity, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure – all risk factors for heart disease. Despite these advantages less than 50% continue breastfeeding beyond 4 weeks. The most common reason given for not breastfeeding or breastfeeding less than three months is ‘not enough milk’. The perception that milk production is insufficient however is subjective. At present, the only method to monitor the amount of milk a baby eats is by weighing the baby before and after feeding. The current technology can monitor amount and quality of milk during breastfeeding.

Applications


Monitoring of the amount of milk given while breastfeeding

Advantages


·        This method allows measuring both milk quantity and quality

  • Encourage infant breastfeeding.
  • Measurement of capacitance with no electrical contact between the electrodes and the body

Technology's Essence


The outlined technology consists of monitoring the amount of milk consumed by a baby during breastfeeding by measuring the capacitance between electrodes placed on the breast (but not in electrical contact with them) during feeding. It is sensitive to the amount, dielectric properties and distribution of matter in the immediate neighborhood of the capacitor plates. When placed on the breasts the capacitance is affected by the amount and properties of materials between plates, including milk content and constitution. Thus, if the amount of milk in the breast is reduced during breastfeeding the capacitance changes accordingly.

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  • Ph.D. Ruti Kapon
1604
Novel reporter gene for magnetic resonance imaging applications.The ability to image the duration and location of gene expression in vivo and noninvasively is imperative for the future of biology and clinical medicine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used noninvasive clinical diagnostic...

Novel reporter gene for magnetic resonance imaging applications.The ability to image the duration and location of gene expression in vivo and noninvasively is imperative for the future of biology and clinical medicine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used noninvasive clinical diagnostic tool that offers views into deep tissues at exquisite spatial resolution. Recently, MRI has emerged as a valuable tool for monitoring the expression of genes by utilizing metal-complexed MRI agents to display transgene activity in vivo. However, administration of metal complexes into tissues and cells is challenging. Intra-cellular metalloproteins such as Ferritin have been utilized as endogenous MRI contrast agents, but offer relatively low sensitivity. The present technology provides a novel Ferritin-based transgene with enhanced MRI contrast.

 

Applications


  • Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in transgenic mice models.
  • Monitoring target gene expression in pre-clinical studies.
  • Long-term cell labeling and tracking.
  • Visualization of cellular- and gene-based therapeutics.

Advantages


  • Does not require delivery of exogenous substrate.
  • Enhanced MRI contrast over current Ferritin-based reporters.
  • Conversion to magnetite is achieved in physiological conditions and not by synthetic modification or by extreme heating. 

Technology's Essence


Ferritin, the main Iron storage intracellular protein, contains a paramagnetic ferryhydrate core, and thus was proposed as an endogenous MRI reporter gene. However, Ferritin provides relatively low sensitivity. One way to increase sensitivity of Ferritin is to convert the non-crystalline ferrihydrate in its core into crystal magnetite as has been done chemically, to form magneto-ferritin. The current method enhances the magnetic properties of Ferritin by engineering a Ferritin protein fused to a bacteria-derived peptide. This novel recombinant fusion protein facilitates conversion of ferrihydrate into crystal magnetite and by this induces MRI contrast. The new construct can serve for monitoring delivery and differentiation of cells in vivo in cellular based therapy. 

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  • Prof. Michal Neeman
1800
A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses. The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt...

A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses.

The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt stimulations. This may allow TMS-EEG to be used as a diagnostic tool for various neurologic and psychiatric conditions.

However, large electric artifacts are induced in the EEG by the TMS, which are unrelated to brain activity and obscure crucial stages of the brain's response. These artifacts are orders of magnitude larger than the physiological brain activity, and persist from a few to hundreds of milliseconds. However, no generally accepted algorithm is available that can remove the artifacts without unintentionally and significally altering physiological information.

The software designed according to the model along with a friendly GUI is a powerful tool for the TMS-EEG field. The software has tested and proven to be effective on real datasets measured on psychiatric patients.

Applications


  • TMS triggered EEG diagnostics

Advantages


  • Easy to use software with a GUI
  • Exposes the full EEG from the brain

Technology's Essence


The new software tool is based on the observation that, contrary to expectation, the decay of the electrode voltage after the TMS pulse is a power law in time rather than an exponential. A model based on two dimensional diffusion of the accumulated charge from the high electric
fields of the TMS in the skin was built. This model reproduces the artifact precisely, including the many perplexing artifact shapes that are seen on the different electrodes. Artifact removal software based on this model exposes the full EEG from the brain, as validated by continuously reconstructing 50Hz signals that are the same magnitude as the brain signals.

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  • Prof. Elisha Moses