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Technology Name
Briefcase
Scientist
1774
A novel method for treating tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant cancer, by using a combination of three different antibodies. Lung cancer is known as one of the most fatal forms of cancer. Notably, standard treatments for other cancer types (e.g. TKIs and mAbs), have shown only a limited effect...

A novel method for treating tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant cancer, by using a combination of three different antibodies.

Lung cancer is known as one of the most fatal forms of cancer. Notably, standard treatments for other cancer types (e.g. TKIs and mAbs), have shown only a limited effect on this specific malignancy. The reason is that lung cancer cells regularly acquire resistance through multiple compensatory mechanisms, including secondary (new) mutations in receptors which block the effects of TKIs; up-regulation of specific genes; or rewiring of signaling networks.

The current technology works around these compensatory mechanisms by using a mixture of antibodies that function in a synergistic manner, to effectively and specifically target lung cancer cells, without affecting healthy cells.

Applications


·         Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

·         A method for augmenting currently available TKIs.


Advantages


·         Specificity – treatment was able to target EGFR-mutated NSCLC cancer cells, and showed no effect on healthy cells.

·         Effective – able to strongly inhibit NSCLC cancer cell lines and inhibit xenografted NSCLC cells in a mouse model.

·         Novel Approach – utilizing data derived from both clinical and laboratory research to devise a method for counteracting compensatory mechanisms of cancer cells.


Technology's Essence


Prof. Yosef Yarden and his group have discovered that by simultaneously inhibiting multiple receptors, namely HER2 and HER3 along with EGFR, they could effectively circumvent the compensatory mechanisms and inhibit NSCLC cell growth. This was determined using a combination of clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data. In addition, in vivo experimental work included xenograted mouse models where only the triple combination of antibodies effectively reduced tumor volume relative to standard mAb treatments.

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  • Prof. Yosef Yarden
1790
A novel method of preventing secondary infections, by inhibition of membrane type I matrix-metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP), which reduces degradation of the extra-cellular matrix. Pathogens that infect the respiratory system are the cause of some of the most dangerous infections, especially for...

A novel method of preventing secondary infections, by inhibition of membrane type I matrix-metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP), which reduces degradation of the extra-cellular matrix.

Pathogens that infect the respiratory system are the cause of some of the most dangerous infections, especially for vulnerable populations such as children and seniors. This is due to the host immune response which can damage the lung tissue, serving as a prime target for secondary infections. Consequently, there is a need for a method that provides better control over inflammatory response and reduces tissue damage caused by the host immune response to an infection.

Prof. Irit Sagi’s research team has discovered that by specifically inhibiting MT1-MMP they can limit tissue damage in the lungs of mice, help prevent secondary infections, and subsequently improve overall survival rates.  

Applications


·         Limiting tissue damage for the prevention and treatment of secondary infections.


Advantages


·        Novel mechanism – targeting MT1-MMP to limit inflammation due to an immune response, rather than targeting the pathogen directly.

·        Usage of an antibody for prophylaxis or treatment

·        Synergism – possibly combined with an anti-pathogen agent to assist in treatment. 

·        Better outcomes – reduction of tissue damage and inhibition of secondary infections improves overall survival rates.


Technology's Essence


The research team of Prof. Irit Sagi has shown a novel mechanism of treating and preventing secondary infections by inhibition of MT1-MMP using an anti-MT1-MMP antibody. The team used mice as an infection model. They performed in vitro experiments on extracted mice lungs to characterize MT1-MMP’s role in the infection pathology. They also calculated survival rates following both primary and secondary infections of mice, with and without inhibition of MT1-MMP. Which showed that the inclusion of the anti-MT1-MMP antibody improved overall survival rates in the infected mice.

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  • Prof. Irit Sagi
1784
Romantic relationships have major impact on our social, emotional and physical wellbeing. Despite this overwhelming importance, we have only limited understanding of the rules and mechanisms that are at the heart of good relationships. Popular notion holds that increased similarity between relationship...

Romantic relationships have major impact on our social, emotional and physical wellbeing. Despite this overwhelming importance, we have only limited understanding of the rules and mechanisms that are at the heart of good relationships. Popular notion holds that increased similarity between relationship partners is an omen for continued positive relationship quality, although studies of similarity in personality and attitude-measures failed to support this notion. Researchers have found that similarity in emotional characteristics may be more relevant to relationship quality. The sensory system that is most intimately linked to emotion is olfaction. Given this powerful link, Prof. Sobel and his olfaction research group hypothesize that individuals with similar olfactory perception would have good romantic relationships.

The new research observed a remarkably powerful association whereby couples who smell the world in the same way have good romantic relationships, i.e., this one measure explained ~50% of the variance in relationship quality. Thus, olfactory perception, which opens a unique window into the emotional brain, informs us that genuine similarity in primal, non-verbal essence is a component of successful romantic relationships.

Applications


·         Online matchmaking platform

·         Scent-marketing


Advantages


  • High-accuracy prediction of romantic fit and personality traits

  • Straight-forward evaluation method and user interface operation


Technology's Essence


The “SmellSpace” online platform generates individual smell-based identity that can predict one’s personality and smell-based matching score: https://smellspace.com/

The method of perceptual fingerprinting includes:

·      Each user smells the same odors set

·      The user rates the odors using verbal descriptors.

·      The perceived similarity of all possible pairs of odors is calculated and the pairwise similarities form a matrix.

·      Finally, the matrices are correlated across individuals.

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  • Prof. Noam Sobel
1834
A rapid, label-free biosensor for detecting specific conformation of His-tag labeled proteins, accessible for use in both academic- and commercial-R&D. The fluorescent biosensor detects and labels His-tagged proteins in complex environments, such as living cells, while offering high sensitivity,...

A rapid, label-free biosensor for detecting specific conformation of His-tag labeled proteins, accessible for use in both academic- and commercial-R&D. The fluorescent biosensor detects and labels His-tagged proteins in complex environments, such as living cells, while offering high sensitivity, speed, and cost-effectiveness.

Fluorescent biosensing has become a valuable tool in analytical research, while at the same time the poly-histidine tag (His-tag) has become the most commonly used tag for protein labeling.  However, commercial products for labeling and detecting conformational changes in His-labeled proteins suffer from three main limitations: First is their inability to identify specific changes in the protein conformation. Second, even if such changes are detected, labeling of His-tag proteins is usually very laborious. And third, commercial probes tend to be large and consequently can interfere with the proteins function.  Therefore, there is a need for a small, direct, and non-interfering fluorescent probe for detection of conformational changes.

Dr. Margulies and his team have developed a first of its kind fluorescent molecule that provides detection of changes to the surface of His-labeled proteins. Subsequently, labeling proteins only if they are in a specific conformation. The biosensor exhibits high affinity, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and can be easily applied with no fixation or tedious protocols.

Using the technology, many proteins and specific conformations can now be labeled and studied for the first time (proteins that were already successfully labeled using the biosensor: Calmodulin, B-cell lymphoma 2, G-protein).

Applications


·         Fluorescent detection of specific conformations of His-tag labeled proteins.

·         Direct labeling in both live cell imaging and biochemical assays.

·         Tracking protein-protein interactions in vivo.

·         Localizing proteins and measuring their steady-state concentration in vivo.


Advantages


·         Direct, rapid, and easily applicable.

·         Operate in complex biological environments – live cells or biological media.

·         High affinity and superior signal-to-noise ratio.

·         Small in size - unlikely to interfere with the labeled protein function.      


Technology's Essence


The biosensor presented here is comprised from three main molecular-components: (1) the selective binder (binds to a specific tag, e.g. His-tag); (2) the nonselective binder (binds to the protein surface, as long it is in a specific conformation); and (3) a solvatochromic fluorophore.

The selective binder (1) ensures the sensor will only bind to a tagged protein (in this case, His-tagged protein), regardless of its conformational state. Once the protein folds into the specific conformation, the nonselective binder (2) detects and binds to the modified surface configuration (pre-designed to detect the specific conformation). Now that the local environment of the attached-biosensor and its fluorophore (3) has changed, the fluorophore subsequently emits a distinct and measurable signal.

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  • Prof. David Margulies
1760
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a growing problem worldwide, leading to increasingly difficult to treat infections due to the reduced number of effective antibiotics. The problem is further exacerbated that even antibiotics of “last resort” are becoming ineffective in treating infections, along with...

Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a growing problem worldwide, leading to increasingly difficult to treat infections due to the reduced number of effective antibiotics. The problem is further exacerbated that even antibiotics of “last resort” are becoming ineffective in treating infections, along with issues of harsh side-effects of using said drugs.

Currently one of the most problematic antibiotic resistant bacterium is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is becoming prevalent in hospitals and care homes, increasing the risk associated with hospitalization and invasive medical procedures. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antibiotics to combat MRSA.

The present technology from the lab of Nobel Prize winning Prof. Ada Yonath offers a tool in designing and developing new types of novel antibiotics. It is a high resolution crystal structure of the large ribosomal (50S) subunit from Staphylococcus aureus. The structure is based on a pathogenic strain giving new insight and capacity to target specifically the bacterium (Eyal Z, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci and Eyal Z, et al. (2016) Sci. Rep.).

Applications


·         Designing and developing new types of antibiotics.

·         Computational screening of chemical libraries, reducing the number of physical compounds to screen.

·         Improving overall understanding of the ribosome in S. aureus.

·         New potential antibiotics binding sited which are species specific.


Advantages


·         High Resolution – the structure gives high detail and possible target positions for antibiotics.

·         Crystal Structures soaked with antibiotics – certain antibiotics have been soaked with the structure giving insight in how they interact with the ribosome, improving rational design of new antibiotics.

·         Structure based on pathogenic bacterium – improving targeting of antibiotics, as current bacterial ribosomal structures are based on non-pathogenic species.


Technology's Essence


The invention is a high resolution crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from the pathogenic S. aureus. The crystal structures importance is that it originates from a pathogenic species allowing for a high-degree of specificity in targeting the S. aureus ribosome. Rather than the currently available ribosomal structures based on non-pathogenic bacteria, where small differences between species may limit the effectiveness in a designed antibiotic. The importance of the technology is that MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is becoming more common place in hospitals, care homes, and even in the agricultural sector. Thus there is a clear need for new types of antibiotics that can help to counteract the ever growing problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance.  

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  • Prof. Ada Yonath
1815
This novel method utilizes polarized light that in contrast to conventional methods does not interact directly with the material or with the material’s surface. Here the material to be tested is secured underneath a reflective material, such that the polarized light reflected off the reflective...

This novel method utilizes polarized light that in contrast to conventional methods does not interact directly with the material or with the material’s surface. Here the material to be tested is secured underneath a reflective material, such that the polarized light reflected off the reflective material does not interact with the sample itself. Accordingly, the polarized light is only affected by expansion/contraction of the material that displaces the reflective material, but is not affected by material’s properties such as refractive index and surface-layer composition/thickness. The novel methods of this invention thus allow the isolation of expansion/contraction parameters of a material. Accordingly, the methods of this invention allow facile, fast and accurate measurement of expansion/contraction properties of a material using polarized light.

Applications


Measuring the expansion/contraction of materials for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative electro-mechanic properties (e.g. piezo-electric parameters) and thermal expansion properties of materials using a sensitive and non-complex system.


Advantages


·      Relatively simple and inexpensive

·      High sensitivity - comparable to extremely complex and expensive interferometers

·      Supports a higher frequency range than existing interferometers.


Technology's Essence


Here the material to be tested is secured underneath a reflective material, such that the polarized light reflected off the reflective material does not interact with the sample itself. Accordingly, the polarized light is only affected by expansion/contraction of the material that displaces the reflective material, but is not affected by material’s properties such as refractive index and surface-layer composition/thickness.

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1658
Rapid, label free assay for glycan identification, accessible for use in medical diagnostics and biomanufacturing quality control. While glycans hold great promise as biomarkers for several diseases including cancer, technologies that enable rapid and sensitive glycan analysis for diagnosis at “point...

Rapid, label free assay for glycan identification, accessible for use in medical diagnostics and biomanufacturing quality control.

While glycans hold great promise as biomarkers for several diseases including cancer, technologies that enable rapid and sensitive glycan analysis for diagnosis at “point of care” settings are not available.

Dr. Margulies and his team from the Weizmann institute of science developed an optical biosensor that is based on combinatorial detection and produces distinct optical “signatures” for even closely related glycan species.

This invention may be implemented into a single device, which will be simple to operate, to identify many types of glycans in high sensitivity for clinical diagnosis and biomanufacturing quality control processes.

Applications


  • Point of care biosensor device for routine detection of glycan biomarkers from clinical samples.

  • Quality control biosensor device for glycans biomanufacturing.


Advantages


  • Label free, rapid, and easy to integrate into a compact self-contained "point of care" system.

  • Highly sensitive due to the combinatorial effect.

  • A single compound identifies many analytes.

  • Ease of miniaturization for future applications.


Technology's Essence


The present invention is based on a multi-sensor array compound which is composed of a non specific receptor (e.g. boronic acid), at least three chromophores and an anchor. The binding event of this compound to an analyte (i.e. carbohydrates, saccharides) is transduced into a measurable optical signature.

The binding of different analytes distinctly affects the emission of each dye, due to direct optical responses of each dye, as well as conformational changes that affect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) processes among them. Other photochemical processes that further contribute to the discrimination ability of this innovative compound are photo-induced electron transfer (PET) and internal charge transfer (ICT).

The combination of these effects provides a vast number of unique optical signatures. The pattern recognizer evaluates the responses and through predetermined, programmed, or learned patterns, compares the unique pattern or signature of the measurements to stored patterns for known biomarker or chemical species.

Finally, this design is extremely simple to operate and utilizes a single instrumentation, a single excitation wavelength, and a single incubation step, all of which enable straightforward analysis.

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  • Prof. David Margulies
1689
Sensing the levels of protein-based biomarkers in biological samples is crucial for diagnosis of various diseases including cancer. Optical biosensors offer sensitivity and cost-effectiveness; however, current commercially available devices fail to provide sufficient selectivity and signal to noise...

Sensing the levels of protein-based biomarkers in biological samples is crucial for diagnosis of various diseases including cancer. Optical biosensors offer sensitivity and cost-effectiveness; however, current commercially available devices fail to provide sufficient selectivity and signal to noise ratios for protein targets.

The technology presents an approach for obtaining sensitive and widely applicable method for detecting and labeling a wide range of proteins in their native environment. It is based on the modification of thiazole orange with one or several protein binders. The result is a series of fluorescent molecular sensors customized to detect various proteins in bio-fluids and living cells with excellent signal-to-noise ratios.

Selective even towards isoforms of the same protein, several such biosensors are now developed against key biomarkers of different cancers, such as Glutathione S-Transferases (GST), His-tag and more. Together, they represent a novel class of highly sensitive fluorescent protein sensors that can pave the way for accurate, high-throughput medical diagnostics and live cell imaging.

Applications


·         Detection of proteins in biological samples for medical diagnostics

·         Fluorescent detection of His-tag or GST labeled proteins for imaging in living cells

·         Differentiating between protein isoforms


Advantages


·         High S/N - signal to noise ratio

·         High selectivity – enables to detect even different isoforms of the same target

·         Compatible with biological samples and living cells


Technology's Essence


Asymmetrical cyanine dyes constitute a unique class of fluorescent molecular sensors whose activation does not involve FRET, ICT, or PET processes. Instead, their fluorescence emission is turned on upon restriction of their torsional motion. Upon binding to DNA or peptide aptamers, this torsional motion leads to an enhanced fluorescence signal.

The present inention, developed by Dr. David Marguleis and his team, is based on TO derivatives linked to a specific "protein binder" – a molecule that selectively binds a desired target protein. The result is a highly selective series of sensors, able to detect their target biomarkers at nanomolar concentrations, with excellent S/N (signal-to-noise) ratios. With simple structural modifications, these sensors can be adjusted to distinct even between different isoforms of the same target, highlighting their strong selectivity.

Most importantly, sensing is compatible with diverse types of biological media including serum, blood, urine, saliva and other body fluids samples, rendering them especially suitable for medical applications.

Currently, the team is developing TO-sensors for GST, MMPs, PSA, Estrogen receptor, Fibronectin , Fgf and PDGF - known biomarkers of different cancers, b-amyloid - a known biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, Caspases, HDAC and His-tag. Such sensor for His-tag may be used as a powerfull research tool, to circumvent the limitations of common labeling methods, in living cells. 

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  • Prof. David Margulies
1549
A tailor-made strategy for cancer treatment. The ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands play important roles in development and tissue remodeling throughout adulthood. ErbB proteins are involved in several types of human cancer. Clinical studies indicate that over-expression of one...

A tailor-made strategy for cancer treatment. The ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands play important roles in development and tissue remodeling throughout adulthood. ErbB proteins are involved in several types of human cancer. Clinical studies indicate that over-expression of one or more ErbB ligands correlates with decreased patient survival. The currently approved drugs for the treatment of cancers driven by the ErbB family target the receptors rather than the ligands, and they include either monoclonal anti-receptor antibodies, or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Because of resistance and moderate clinical efficacies of anti-receptor antibodies and TKIs it is worthwhile considering alternative strategies. The present technology combines several antibodies, capable of blocking ErbB ligands, with chemotherapy.

Applications


  • Treatment of cancers that possess the ErbB receptors (e.g. colorectal, liver, bladder, and head and neck tumors)

Advantages


  • Effective blockade of the tumorigenic action of ErbB-specific ligands
  • The combination protocol may enhance the sensitivity to chemotherapy

Technology's Essence


In the outlined technology, monoclonal antibodies were generated against two ligands, namely TGF-? and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. Combining the two antibodies with a chemotherapeutic drug enhanced the ability of chemotherapy to inhibit pancreatic tumors in mice. Therefore, this technology offers a general cancer therapeutic strategy that entails profiling the repertoire of growth factors secreted by a tumor, and combining with chemotherapy several antibodies capable of blocking autocrine ligands, in a way that sensitizes tumors to cytotoxicity and delays onset of chemoresistance.

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  • Prof. Yosef Yarden
1783
Aluminum and magnesium alloys are gaining more recognition for light-weight materials applications. In spite of this, such alloys have not been used for critical mechanical applications mainly due to their inferior mechanical properties compared to other engineering materials such as steel. Hence, many...

Aluminum and magnesium alloys are gaining more recognition for light-weight materials applications. In spite of this, such alloys have not been used for critical mechanical applications mainly due to their inferior mechanical properties compared to other engineering materials such as steel. Hence, many researchers have attempted to reinforce these alloys and obtain light-weight materials with excellent mechanical properties. The reinforcement process of the alloy can be achieved by introducing another material to form metal matrix composites. Different studies show that such composites exhibit improved properties, such as increased yield strength and tensile strength, enhanced stiffness, improved thermochemical properties, etc. However, the introduction of nanomaterials into the metal matrix is rather difficult due to the harsh manufacturing conditions employed for processing the metal composites.

The group of Prof. Reshef Tenne has developed state-of-the-art aluminum- and magnesium-based metal matrix composites, comprising small amounts of inorganic nanomaterials, such as nanotubes and spherical nanoparticles. The new nanocomposites exhibit much superior mechanical properties compared to the pristine alloy.

 

Table 1: Mechanical properties of different alloys reinforced with nanoparticles versus their neat form

Metal

Alloy

Neat UTS, MPa

Neat elongation

Added Nanoparticles

improvement UTS, %

improvement elongation, %

Aluminum

AA6061

170

0.28

0.2wt.% INT

21%

68%

AA6061

170

0.28

0.2wt.% IF

16%

39%

AA356

175

0.09

0.02wt.% INT

9%

44%

Magnesium

AZ31

135

0.14

0.2wt.% INT

54%

85%

AZ61

130

0.10

0.2wt.% INT

45%

96%

Applications


·         Automotive, transportation, and aerospace industries

·         Jet engine technologies

·         Electronics

·         Medical technologies


Advantages


·         Light-weight metal alloys

·         Excellent mechanical properties

·         Straight-forward fabrication technique


Technology's Essence


Aluminum and magnesium alloys were combined with small amounts (up to 0.5 wt.%) of either tungsten disulfide nanotubes (WS2 INT) or inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide nanoparticles (WS2 IF) to form metal matrix composites (MMC) using a melt-stirring reactor operated at high temperatures (Al MMCs: 250-750?C; Mg MMCs: 400-720?C). These nano-structures exhibit unique mechanical properties, which make their usage as a metal reinforcement very promising. The nanoparticles showed quite a remarkable stability at these elevated processing temperatures and were found to be uniformly distributed. Despite the small amounts of added nanostructures, their addition led to remarkable improvements in the mechanical properties of the alloys. Surprisingly, both the tensile strength of the alloys and their elongation were improved by approximately 10-50% and 40-100% (and consequently the fracture toughness was significantly increased), respectively. Depending on the nano-structure type and concentration, the hardness, yielding strength, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility were significantly improved. For example, the yielding strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and ductility of AA6061/0.2wt.% WS2 INT MMCs were improved by 15%, 21% and 68%, respectively. Representative mechanical properties of different aluminum and magnesium alloys reinforced with nanoparticles versus their neat form are shown in Table 1. Stress-strain curves of AA6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with different nanoparticle loading are presented in Figure 1. Physical considerations suggest that the main mechanism responsible for the reinforcement effect lies in the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the metal and the nano-structures.

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  • Prof. Tenne Reshef
1736
Biomass production by plants and other photosynthetic organisms involves carbon fixation, the process of incorporating inorganic carbon dioxide into organic compounds. Currently carbon fixation by plants and other photosynthetic organisms is the limiting factor in biomass production. Improvement in the...

Biomass production by plants and other photosynthetic organisms involves carbon fixation, the process of incorporating inorganic carbon dioxide into organic compounds. Currently carbon fixation by plants and other photosynthetic organisms is the limiting factor in biomass production.

Improvement in the metabolic pathway related to carbon fixation would have great value in increasing crop yields, synthesizing high value compounds in algae, and developing means in removing CO2 from the atmosphere to combat climate change.

The present technology is an engineered E. coli with a carbon fixation pathway. The unique innovation can be used to efficiently screen the activity of RuBisCO, the most abundant carbon fixing enzyme on earth, which is further applicable to improving biomass production in different photosynthetic organisms such as plants and algae.

Applications


·      Powerful platform for screening and improving various enzymes in the carbon fixation process.

·      Unique metabolic pathway for use in Synthetic Biology applications.

·      Possible Carbon Credits for developing improved means of carbon fixation.


Advantages


·      E. coli is fast growing and easily manipulated by various genetic tools.

·      Novel source of biomass production.

·      Potentially low cost R&D system.


Technology's Essence


The technology functions by the recombinant insertion of two enzymes from the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) into E. coli, kinase prk and the carboxylating enzyme RuBisCO. With further modifications, the engineered E. coli’s metabolism was divided into two subsections. First a carbon fixing metabolism that can incorporate inorganic CO2 into sugar production, the second subsection consumes organic pyruvate to produce energy to drive the aforementioned carbon fixing cycle. Subsequently the technology is overall carbon neutral, but is an inexpensive and fast platform for screening improvements in the CBB carbon fixation pathway.

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  • Prof. Ron Milo
1786
Perovskites are a class of crystalline materials with a common complex chemical structure. Lead-halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have recently emerged as highly efficient optoelectronic materials. Such materials are being intensively investigated and developed for photovoltaics,...

Perovskites are a class of crystalline materials with a common complex chemical structure. Lead-halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have recently emerged as highly efficient optoelectronic materials. Such materials are being intensively investigated and developed for photovoltaics, photodetection, light-emitting diodes, and laser devices. Solar cells containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have achieved over 20% certified efficiency.

Perovskites are most commonly synthesized by combining a metal salt (for example, a lead-based salt such as lead iodide) with an organic halide salt in a single step, by spin-coating from a solution of both salts, by co-evaporation, or by a two-step method of forming the metal salt film and subsequently exposing it to the organic halide. The existing fabrication methods suffer from high toxicity, complexity and high energy input.

We present a new method for the preparation of halide perovskites on a substrate for optoelectronic devices and solar cells, including tandem cells that produce higher voltages.

Applications


·      Solar cells

·      Other optoelectronic devices (e.g., photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, lasers)


Advantages


·      Reduced toxicity

·      Simple and straight-forward fabrication method

·      Excellent morphology control of the perovskites


Technology's Essence


Perovskites are crystalline materials with the formula ABX3, in which A and B are cations and X represents an anion. In hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOIPs), A is an organic cation, B is a metal cation, and X is a halide anion.

The synthesis of HOIPs usually involves the use of toxic metal salts (for example, lead iodide or lead acetate) and organic solvents (such as dimethylformamide). Additionally, the combination of a metal salt with several organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide, increases the toxicity of the solution in use.

The new fabrication method utilizes a metal or a metal alloy and an organic halide salt. In the first step, a layer comprising one of the components is deposited on a substrate. Then, the deposited layer is treated with a solution or a vapor of the second component to form a halide HOIP on a solid surface. This method provides a direct conversion of an elemental metal or a metal alloy to a halide perovskite or a perovskite related material. The main advantage of the presented method is the reduced toxicity of the solution used in the process. Additionally, the metals (mainly lead) are much less toxic in terms of manufacturing than the salts of the same metals.

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  • Prof. David Cahen
1798
The rising demand for exclusive visual impact in many applications, along with escalating regulatory requirements drive the development of new, environmentally benign, pearlescent materials. Guanine, a common naturally mineralized material, is being used in a variety of products in industries, such as...

The rising demand for exclusive visual impact in many applications, along with escalating regulatory requirements drive the development of new, environmentally benign, pearlescent materials. Guanine, a common naturally mineralized material, is being used in a variety of products in industries, such as cosmetics, paints and jewelry due to its pearlescence effect. However, the industrial application of guanine crystals is limited since they are extracted from biological sources (mostly fish scales) with limited control over crystals dimensions, morphology and quantity for industrial applications. The main reasons impeding the use of synthetic guanine crystals are guanine insolubility in most solvents and the difficulty of obtaining crystals in the desired morphology. For these reasons, there is a thriving need for the development of a synthetic approach for the formation of well-defined anhydrous guanine crystals with tailor-made properties.

The new technology provides a novel synthetic method for the preparation of highly versatile pearlescent materials, based on guanine crystals, from aqueous solutions. The controllable size and shape of the resulting materials and the sustainability of the method make them suitable alternatives for the existing naturally occurring pearlescent pigments.

Applications


·      Cost-effective and environmentally-friendly approach

·      Control over crystals properties, including size and phase (anhydrous guanine and guanine monohydrate)

·      The same technology can be applied for the crystallization of other materials (purines and pteridines)


Advantages


·      Cosmetics and personal care products

·      Printing inks and decorative paints

·      Automotive paints.


Technology's Essence


Guanine is practically insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions. However, in aqueous acidic or basic solutions, where the molecules are ionized, guanine is much more soluble. The process involves dissolving guanine powder in either acidic or basic solutions, using HCl or NaOH, respectively, and then inducing crystallization by adjusting the pH of the solution. The crystal morphologies differ significantly when carrying out the crystallization in solutions adjusted to different pH regimes. Using pH induced crystallization, the interplay between the initial guanine concentration and the rate of pH change allow substantial control over the crystallization process and ultimately over the crystal size.

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  • Prof. Lia Addadi
1751
Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets. The present...

Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets.
The present discovery elucidates the pathway by which argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) down-regulation confer cancer progression. It shows that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by linking excess aspartate to pyrimidines synthesis. Importantly, these studies highlight Citrin (a mitochondrial aspartate transporter) inhibition as a potential method to decrease aspartate levels and selectively target this metabolic pathway in ASS1 depleted cancers.

Applications


  • Targeted Treatment for ASS1 depleted cancers.

Advantages


  • Targeted therapy, against a well defined pathway, increases the prospects for success.
  • Selective – targeting cancer metabolic dependency minimizes the chances for healthy cells damage that lead to side effects.

Technology's Essence


Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit in what is termed the Warburg effect. Researchers from Dr. Ayelet Erez's lab, at the Weizmann institute of Science, have delineated the metabolic benefit(s) conferred by loss of ASS1 to cancers. In agreement with previous experience, they found that ASS1 deficiency has an additional arginine- independent effect that is directly related to its substrate, aspartate.
By focusing on the relevant physiological and pathological model systems, it was found that ASS1 deficiency-mediated increase in aspartate levels lead to excessive proliferation through pyrimidine synthesis. The link between the two is provided by CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase complex) and the mTOR signaling pathway.
Importantly, the present inventors have found that blocking Citrin, the mitochondrial aspartate transporter, rescues cell proliferation by reducing aspartate levels. Citrin may thus serve as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of ASS1 depleted cancers.   
Supporting this model, retrospective survival analysis of several cancers reveal that cancers with both decreased ASS1 expression and high Citrin levels have a trend for significantly worse prognosis.

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  • Dr. Ayelet Erez
1712
  • Prof. Yechiel Shai

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